WPA2 : AP-STA between 2 Linux laptops

     == Scanning ==

     STA -> AP: **Probe Request**
     AP -> STA: **Probe Response**

     == Authentication ==

     STA -> AP: **Authentication Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **Authentication Response**
     STA --> AP: ACK

     == Association ==

     STA -> AP: **Association Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **Association Response**
     STA --> AP: ACK

     == EAPOL 4 way handshake ==

     AP -> STA: **M1**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **M2**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **M3**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **M4**
     AP --> STA: ACK

     == DHCP ==

     STA -> AP: **DHCP Discover**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **DHCP Offer**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **DHCP Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **DHCP Acknowledgement**
     STA --> AP: ACK

     == PING AP from STA ==

     STA -> AP: **ARP Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ARP Reply**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Reply**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Reply**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Request**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Reply**
     STA --> AP: ACK

     == PING STA from AP ==

     AP -> STA: **ARP Request**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ARP Reply**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Request**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Reply**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Request**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Reply**
     AP --> STA: ACK
     AP -> STA: **ICMP Echo Request**
     STA --> AP: ACK
     STA -> AP: **ICMP Echo Reply**

Step 1: STA : Remove old packages

Step 1: AP : Remove old packages

$ cd $HOME

$ rm -rf hostap* wpa_supp*
$ cd $HOME

$ rm -rf hostap* wpa_supp*

Step 2: STA : Download wpa_supplicant

Step 2: AP : Download hostapd

Note

Make sure internet is available in laptop to download supplicant package

Note

Make sure internet is available in laptop to download hostapd package

$ sudo wget https://w1.fi/releases/wpa_supplicant-2.9.tar.gz
$ sudo wget http://w1.fi/releases/hostapd-2.9.tar.gz

Step 3: STA : Install libraries

Step 3: AP : Install libraries

Note

Make sure internet is available in laptop to download libraries

Note

Make sure internet is available in laptop to download libraries

$ sudo apt install libnl-genl-3-dev libnl-3-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev
$ sudo apt install libnl-genl-3-dev libnl-3-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev

Step 4: STA : Stop ongoing wireless activities

Step 4: AP : Stop ongoing wireless activities

Warning

Internet is cut-off after this !

Warning

Internet is cut-off after this !

$ sudo killall wpa_supplicant

$ sudo killall wpa_cli

$ sudo killall hostapd

$ sudo killall hostapd_cli

$ sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager stop
Stopping network-manager (via systemctl): network-manager.service.

$ sudo rfkill list all
0: hci0: Bluetooth
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
1: dell-wifi: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
2: dell-bluetooth: Bluetooth
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
3: phy0: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
4: phy1: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
5: phy2: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no

$ sudo rfkill unblock all
$ sudo ifconfig wlan1 up
$ sudo killall wpa_supplicant

$ sudo killall wpa_cli

$ sudo killall hostapd

$ sudo killall hostapd_cli

$ sudo killall dhclient

$ sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager stop
Stopping network-manager (via systemctl): network-manager.service.

$ sudo rfkill list all
0: hci0: Bluetooth
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
1: dell-wifi: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
2: dell-bluetooth: Bluetooth
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
3: phy0: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
4: phy1: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
5: phy2: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no

$ sudo rfkill unblock all
$ sudo ifconfig wlan0 up

Step 5: STA : Wireless interface status before connection

Step 5: AP : Wireless interface status before connection

Note

wlan1 is the name of wireless interface on this laptop

Note

wlan0 is the name of wireless interface on this laptop

$ sudo iwconfig wlan1
wlan1     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:off/any  
          Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
$ sudo iwconfig wlan0
wlan0     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:off/any  
          Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on

Step 6: STA : ifconfig interface status before connection

Step 6: AP : ifconfig interface status before connection

$ sudo ifconfig wlan1
wlan1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 02:00:00:00:01:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
$ sudo ifconfig wlan0
wlan0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 02:00:00:00:00:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Step 7: STA : Extract wpa_supplicant

Step 7: AP : Extract hostapd

Note

tar -xvf command extracts zipped supplicant package

Note

tar -xvf command extracts zipped hostapd package

$ sudo tar -xvf wpa_supplicant-2.9.tar.gz
$ sudo tar -xzvf hostapd-2.9.tar.gz

Step 8: STA : Compile wpa_supplicant

Step 8: AP : Compile hostapd

Note

.config file is required for make to start compilation of supplicant

Note

.config file is required for make to start compilation of hostapd

$ cd wpa_supplicant-2.9/wpa_supplicant

$ cp defconfig .config

$ make
$ cd hostapd-2.9/hostapd

$ cp defconfig .config

$ make

Step 9: STA : Create run_supplicant.conf

Step 9: AP : Create run_hostapd.conf

Note

ssid in ./run_supplicant.conf should match ssid in ./run_hostapd.conf

Note

ssid in ./run_hostapd.conf should be used by clients while connecting to AP

$ sudo vim ./run_supplicant.conf

ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
update_config=1
network={
	ssid="test_wpa2"
	proto=WPA2
	key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
	psk="12345678"
}
$ sudo vim ./run_hostapd.conf

ctrl_interface=/run/hostapd
interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
ssid=test_wpa2
hw_mode=g
channel=6
macaddr_acl=0
auth_algs=1
ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
wpa=2
wpa_passphrase=12345678
wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
rsn_pairwise=CCMP
group_cipher=CCMP

MONITOR : Let us start Sniffer to capture all packets between STA and AP

$ sudo iw dev wlan1 interface add moni0 type monitor

$ sudo iw dev moni0 set type monitor

$ sudo ifconfig moni0 up

$ sudo iw dev moni0 set channel 6

$ sudo iwconfig moni0
wlan3     IEEE 802.11  Mode:Monitor  Frequency:2.437 GHz  Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on

$ sudo iw dev 
phy#4
	Interface moni0
		ifindex 7
		wdev 0x400000001
		addr 02:00:00:00:03:00
		type monitor
		channel 6 (2437 MHz), width: 20 MHz (no HT), center1: 2437 MHz
		txpower 20.00 dBm

$ sudo apt-get install wireshark


$ sudo wireshark

Step 10: STA : Run wpa_supplicant

Step 10: AP : Run hostapd

Note

CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED indicates successful connection to AP

Note

AP-STA-CONNECTED indicates successful connection of STA

$ sudo ./wpa_supplicant -Dnl80211 -i wlan1 -c ./run_supplicant.conf

Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant
wlan1: SME: Trying to authenticate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_wpa2' freq=2437 MHz)
wlan1: Trying to associate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_wpa2' freq=2437 MHz)
wlan1: Associated with 02:00:00:00:00:00
wlan1: CTRL-EVENT-SUBNET-STATUS-UPDATE status=0
wlan1: WPA: Key negotiation completed with 02:00:00:00:00:00 [PTK=CCMP GTK=CCMP]
wlan1: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 02:00:00:00:00:00 completed [id=0 id_str=]
$ sudo ./hostapd ./run_hostapd.conf

Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
Using interface wlan0 with hwaddr 02:00:00:00:00:00 and ssid "test_wpa2"
wlan0: interface state UNINITIALIZED->ENABLED
wlan0: AP-ENABLED

Step 11: STA : Check ps status and confirm wpa_supplicant process is running

Step 11: AP : Check ps status and confirm hostapd process is running

$ ps -N | grep -i wpa
  36164 pts/2    00:00:00 wpa_supplicant
$ ps -N | grep -i hostapd
  36261 pts/3    00:00:00 hostapd

Step 12: STA : Check connection status using wpa_cli

Step 12: AP : Check connection status using hostapd_cli

Note

wpa_state=COMPLETED indicates successful connection. Check output of status

Note

aid=1 is assigned to connected station. Check output of all_sta

$ sudo ./wpa_cli -i wlan1
> status
bssid=02:00:00:00:00:00
freq=2437
ssid=test_wpa2
id=0
mode=station
pairwise_cipher=CCMP
group_cipher=CCMP
key_mgmt=WPA2-PSK
wpa_state=COMPLETED
address=02:00:00:00:01:00
uuid=572cf82f-c957-5653-9b16-b5cfb298abf1


$ sudo ./wpa_cli -i wlan1
> scan
OK
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-STARTED
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-RESULTS
>
> scan_result
bssid / frequency / signal level / flags / ssid
02:00:00:00:00:00	2437	-30	[WPA2-PSK-CCMP][ESS]	test_wpa2
>
> add_network
0
> set_network 0 ssid "test_wpa2"
OK
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-STARTED
set_network 0 key_mgmt WPA-PSK
> OK
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-RESULTS
set_network 0 proto WPA2
> OK
> set_network 0 psk "12345678"
OK
> enable_network 0
OK
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-STARTED
>
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-RESULTS
<3>SME: Trying to authenticate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_wpa2' freq=2437 MHz)
<3>Trying to associate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_wpa2' freq=2437 MHz)
<3>Associated with 02:00:00:00:00:00
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SUBNET-STATUS-UPDATE status=0
<3>WPA: Key negotiation completed with 02:00:00:00:00:00 [PTK=CCMP GTK=CCMP]
<3>CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 02:00:00:00:00:00 completed [id=0 id_str=]
<3>CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-STARTED
>
> status
bssid=02:00:00:00:00:00
freq=2437
ssid=test_wpa2
id=0
mode=station
pairwise_cipher=CCMP
group_cipher=CCMP
key_mgmt=WPA2-PSK
wpa_state=COMPLETED
address=02:00:00:00:01:00
uuid=572cf82f-c957-5653-9b16-b5cfb298abf1
$ sudo ./hostapd_cli -i wlan0
hostapd_cli v2.9
Copyright (c) 2004-2019, Jouni Malinen <j@w1.fi> and contributors

This software may be distributed under the terms of the BSD license.
See README for more details.

Interactive mode

Step 13: STA : Wireless interface status after connection

Step 13: AP : Wireless interface status after connection

Note

ESSID field in iwconfig should show ssid of AccessPoint

Note

Mode field in iwconfig should show master

$ sudo iwconfig 
wlan1     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:"test_wpa2"  
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.437 GHz  Access Point: 02:00:00:00:00:00   
          Bit Rate:54 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=70/70  Signal level=-30 dBm  
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0



$ sudo iw dev
phy#2
	Interface wlan1
		ifindex 6
		wdev 0x200000001
		addr 02:00:00:00:01:00
		ssid test_wpa2
		type managed
		channel 6 (2437 MHz), width: 20 MHz (no HT), center1: 2437 MHz
$ sudo iwconfig 
wlan0     IEEE 802.11  Mode:Master  Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on

$ sudo iw dev
phy#1
	Interface wlan0
		ifindex 5
		wdev 0x100000001
		addr 02:00:00:00:00:00
		ssid test_wpa2
		type AP
		channel 6 (2437 MHz), width: 20 MHz (no HT), center1: 2437 MHz
		txpower 20.00 dBm

Step 14: STA : Assign Static IP address

Step 14: AP : Assign Static IP address

Note

Station and AP should be in same IP subnet. Assign 192.168.3.10 to Station

Note

Station and AP should be in same IP subnet. Assign 192.168.3.1 to AP

Attention

Use static IP assignment if DHCP server is not supported by AP

Attention

Use static IP assignment if DHCP server is not supported by AP

$ sudo ifconfig wlan1 192.168.3.10 up

$ sudo ifconfig wlan1
wlan1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.3.10  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.3.255
        ether 02:00:00:00:01:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73  bytes 13119 (13.1 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 65  bytes 13111 (13.1 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
$ sudo ifconfig wlan0 192.168.3.1 up

$ sudo ifconfig wlan0
wlan0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.3.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.3.255
        ether 02:00:00:00:00:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 61  bytes 11085 (11.0 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 130  bytes 25688 (25.6 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Step 15: STA : Assign DHCP IP address

Step 15: AP : Assign DHCP IP address

Attention

This initiates DORA. Make sure DHCP server is running in AP !

Attention

isc-dhcp-server needs to be installed to setup DHCP server

Note

dhclient is DHCP client

Note

See below ! Add configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

Note

dhclient -r releases existing IP

Note

See below ! Add configuration in /etc/network/interfaces

Note

dhclient -i wlan1 gets IP address from DHCP server

Note

See below ! Add configuration in /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server

# Release any existing IP address

$ sudo dhclient -r

$ sudo ifconfig wlan1 0.0.0.0 up

# Run DHCP client on wlan1. This initiates DORA

$ sudo dhclient -i wlan1

# Check if wlan1 got IP address

$ sudo ifconfig wlan1

Setup DHCP server : https://help.ubuntu.com/community/isc-dhcp-server

$ sudo dpkg --configure -a

$ sudo apt-get install isc-dhcp-server

$ sudo vim /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

# (add your comments here) 
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
option routers 192.168.1.254;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2;
option domain-name "mydomain.example";

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;
range 192.168.1.150 192.168.1.200;
}


$ sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces

auto wlan0
  iface wlan0 inet static
    address 192.168.3.1
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    up     /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 mode TTTTTT && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 enc
restricted && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 key [Y] XXXXXXXX && /sbin/iwconfig
wlan0 essid test_wpa2

$ sudo vim /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server

INTERFACESv4="wlan0"
INTERFACESv6=""

$ sudo ifconfig wlan0 192.168.3.1 up

$ sudo service isc-dhcp-server stop
$ sudo service isc-dhcp-server start
$ sudo service isc-dhcp-server status
● isc-dhcp-server.service - ISC DHCP IPv4 server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/isc-dhcp-server.service;
             enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Sun 2022-01-09 12:24:33 IST; 5s ago
       Docs: man:dhcpd(8)
   Main PID: 50874 (dhcpd)
      Tasks: 4 (limit: 9330)
     Memory: 5.0M
     CGroup: /system.slice/isc-dhcp-server.service
             └─50874 dhcpd -user dhcpd -group dhcpd -f -4 -pf
             /run/dhcp-server/dhcpd.pid -cf /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf wlan0

Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: PID file: /run/dhcp-server/dhcpd.pid
Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: Wrote 0 leases to leases file.
Jan 09 12:24:33 test sh[50874]: Wrote 0 leases to leases file.
Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: Listening on LPF/wlan0/02:00:00:00:00:00/192.168.3.0/24
Jan 09 12:24:33 test sh[50874]: Listening on LPF/wlan0/02:00:00:00:00:00/192.168.3.0/24
Jan 09 12:24:33 test sh[50874]: Sending on   LPF/wlan0/02:00:00:00:00:00/192.168.3.0/24
Jan 09 12:24:33 test sh[50874]: Sending on   Socket/fallback/fallback-net
Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: Sending on   LPF/wlan0/02:00:00:00:00:00/192.168.3.0/24
Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: Sending on   Socket/fallback/fallback-net
Jan 09 12:24:33 test dhcpd[50874]: Server starting service.

Step 16: STA : Ping AP

Step 16: AP : Ping STA

Note

192.168.3.1 is IP address of Access Point

Note

192.168.3.10 is IP address of Station

$ sudo ping 192.168.3.1
PING 192.168.3.1 (192.168.3.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.121 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.091 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.090 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.097 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.243 ms
$ sudo ping 192.168.3.10
PING 192.168.3.10 (192.168.3.10) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.092 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.036 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.094 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.105 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.094 ms

Step 17: STA : Run TCP server for TCP DL test

Step 17: AP : Run TCP Client for TCP DL test

$ sudo iperf -s -i 1
$ sudo iperf -c 192.168.3.10 -i 1 -t 30

Step 18: STA : Run TCP client for TCP UL test

Step 18: AP : Run TCP Server for TCP UL test

$ sudo iperf -c 192.168.3.1 -i 1 -t 30
$ sudo iperf -s -i 1

Step 19: STA : Run UDP server for UDP DL test

Step 19: AP : Run UDP Client for UDP DL test

$ sudo iperf -s -u -i 1 
$ sudo iperf -c 192.168.3.10 -u -b 1000M -i 1 -t 30

Step 20: STA : Run UDP client for UDP UL test

Step 20: AP : Run UDP Server for UDP UL test

$ sudo iperf -c 192.168.3.1 -u -b 1000M -i 1 -t 30
$ sudo iperf -s -u -i 1
## wget command is used to ? - [x] Download a package from Internet > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Delete a directory > This is wrong ! rm or rmdir is used to Delete a directory. - [ ] Create a socket file > This is wrong. - [ ] Compile a program > This is wrong. A compiler is used to compile a program ## PSK stands for ? - [x] pre-shared key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] personal-shared key (PSK) > This is wrong - [ ] permanent-shared key > This is wrong. - [ ] planned-shared key (PSK) > This is wrong. ## CRC stands for ? - [x] cyclic redundancy check > This is the correct answer. - [ ] central redundancy check > This is wrong - [ ] centrifugal redundancy check (CRC) > This is wrong. - [ ] cylindrical redundancy check (CRC) > This is wrong. ## AAA server stands for ? - [x] authentication, authorization, and accounting > This is the correct answer. - [ ] authentication, advances, and accounting > This is wrong - [ ] authentication, authorization, and advances > This is wrong. - [ ] advances, authorization, and accounting > This is wrong. ## WFA stands for ? - [x] Wi-Fi Alliance > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Wi-Fi Authentication > This is wrong - [ ] Wi-Fi Advances > This is wrong. - [ ] Wi-Fi Accounting > This is wrong. ## CCMP stands for ? - [x] Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Cipher Block Chaining Manage Authentication Code Protocol > This is wrong - [ ] Cipher Block Chaining Message Advanced Code Protocol > This is wrong. - [ ] Cipher Block Chaining Manage Authentication Code Protocol > This is wrong. ## AES stands for ? - [x] Advanced Encryption Standard > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Authentication Encryption Standard > This is wrong - [ ] Advanced Encryption Security > This is wrong. - [ ] Authenticated Enhanced Standard > This is wrong. ## killall command is used to ? - [x] Terminate all instances of a process > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Create process > This is wrong ! - [ ] Restart network manager > This is wrong ! /etc/init.d/network-manager restart is used to restart a network manager - [ ] Create an ordinary file > This is wrong ! ## iwconfig command without arguements ? - [x] Lists all available wireless interfaces > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Lists all available ethernet interfaces > This is wrong ! - [ ] Lists all available bluetooth interfaces > This is wrong ! - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## tar -xvf command ? - [x] Decompress a compressed .tar.gz file > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Decompress a compressed .zip file > This is wrong ! - [ ] Compress a Decompressed .tar.gz file > This is wrong ! tar -cvf is used to create a compressed file - [ ] Compress a Decompressed .zip file > This is wrong ! ## wpa supplicant indicates ? - [x] 802.11 station operation > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 802.11 AP operation > This is wrong ! - [ ] Monitor mode operation > This is wrong ! - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## hostapd indicates ? - [ ] 802.11 station operation > This is wrong ! - [x] 802.11 AP operation > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Monitor mode operation > This is wrong ! - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## make command is used ? - [ ] Download a package from Internet > This is wrong. wget or apt-get is used for downloading a package - [ ] Delete a directory > This is wrong ! rm or rmdir is used to Delete a directory. - [ ] Create a socket file > This is wrong ! - [x] Compile a program > This is the correct answer. ## dhclient command is used ? - [x] on STA side to initiate DORA and get IP address from DHCP server > This is the correct answer. - [ ] on AP side to assign a static IP > This is wrong ! - [ ] on STA side to assign a static IP > This is wrong ! - [ ] on AP side to assign a DHCP IP > This is wrong ! ## TCP UL means ? - [x] iperf server on AP side, iperf client on STA side > This is the correct answer. - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf client on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf server on AP side > This is wrong ! ## UDP UL means ? - [x] iperf server on AP side, iperf client on STA side > This is the correct answer. - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf client on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf server on AP side > This is wrong ! ## TCP DL means ? - [ ] iperf server on AP side, iperf client on STA side > This is wrong ! - [x] iperf server on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is the correct answer. - [ ] iperf client on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf server on AP side > This is wrong ! ## UDP DL means ? - [ ] iperf server on AP side, iperf client on STA side > This is wrong ! - [x] iperf server on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is the correct answer. - [ ] iperf client on STA side, iperf client on AP side > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf server on STA side, iperf server on AP side > This is wrong ! ## Successful connection of station to AP is indicated by ? - [ ] wpa_state=SCANNING > This is wrong ! - [x] wpa_state=COMPLETED > This is the correct answer. - [ ] wpa_state=STARTED > This is wrong ! - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## DHCP stands for ? - [x] Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Dynamic Host Correction Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Dynamic HDD Configration Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## DORA stand for ? - [x] DHCP Discover, DHCP Offer, DHCP Request, DHCP ACK > This is the correct answer. - [ ] DHCP DIFS, DHCP Offer, DHCP Request, DHCP ACK > This is wrong ! - [ ] DHCP Discover, DHCP offer, DHCP Response, DHCP ACK > This is wrong ! - [ ] DHCP Discover, DHCP offer, DHCP Response, DHCP Arrange > This is wrong ! ## ARP stands for ? - [x] Address Resolution Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Address Request Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Address Response Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Address Receive Protocol > This is wrong ! ## ICMP stands for ? - [x] Internet Control Message Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Internet Common Message Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Internet Control Manage Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Internet Common Manage Protocol > This is wrong ! ## TCP stands for ? - [x] Transmission Control Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Transmission Common Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Transaction Control Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Transaction Common Protocol > This is wrong ! ## UDP stands for ? - [x] User Datagram Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] User Datapath Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Usage Datagram Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Usage Datapath Protocol > This is wrong ! ## ping application uses ? - [ ] User Datagram Protocol - UDP > This is wrong ! - [ ] Transmission Control Protocol - TCP > This is wrong ! - [x] Internet Control Message Protocol - ICMP > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 Open security mode, authentication phase uses ? - [ ] Four authentication packets > This is wrong ! - [ ] Six authentication packets > This is wrong ! - [x] Two authentication packets > This is the correct answer. - [ ] One authentication packet > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 Open security mode, association phase uses ? - [ ] Four association packets > This is wrong ! - [ ] Six association packets > This is wrong ! - [x] Two association packets > This is the correct answer. - [ ] One association packet > This is wrong ! ## ARP is used to resolve ? - [ ] IPv4 address > This is wrong ! - [ ] IPv6 address > This is wrong ! - [x] MAC address > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, AP stands for ? - [ ] Address Point > This is wrong ! - [ ] Access Protocol > This is wrong ! - [x] Access Point > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Address Protocol > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, STA stands for ? - [ ] Standard > This is wrong ! - [ ] Stamp > This is wrong ! - [x] Station > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## How to release IP address of a network interface in Ubuntu ? - [ ] sudo dhclient -i wlan1 > This is wrong ! - [ ] sudo ifconfig wlan1 up > This is wrong ! - [x] sudo dhclient -r > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## How to assign IP address to a network interface in Ubuntu using DHCP ? - [ ] sudo dhclient -r > This is wrong ! - [ ] sudo ifconfig wlan1 up > This is wrong ! - [x] sudo dhclient -i wlan1 > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Beacon packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Station > This is wrong ! - [x] Access Point > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Probe-Response packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Station > This is wrong ! - [x] Access Point > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Authentication Request packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Access Point > This is wrong ! - [x] Station > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Association Request packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Access Point > This is wrong ! - [x] Station > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Association Response packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Station > This is wrong ! - [x] Access Point > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11, Authentication Response packet is sent by ? - [ ] Monitor mode > This is wrong ! - [ ] Station > This is wrong ! - [x] Access Point > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None of the above > This is wrong ! ## In output of iwconfig command, which field is not seen ? - [ ] ESSID > This is wrong ! - [ ] Mode > This is wrong ! - [x] mtu > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Power management > This is wrong ! ## In output of ifconfig command, which field is not seen ? - [ ] mtu > This is wrong ! - [ ] ether > This is wrong ! - [x] ESSID > This is the correct answer. - [ ] flags > This is wrong ! ## cd ../ means ? - [ ] Change to previous to previous directory > This is wrong ! - [ ] Change to next directory > This is wrong ! - [x] Change to previous directory > This is the correct answer. - [ ] None > This is wrong ! ## Command to delete a directory ? - [ ] cp > This is wrong ! - [ ] touch > This is wrong ! - [x] rm or rmdir > This is the correct answer. - [ ] cat > This is wrong ! ## Command to copy a file ? - [ ] ls > This is wrong ! - [ ] touch > This is wrong ! - [x] cp > This is the correct answer. - [ ] cat > This is wrong ! ## Command to start a network manager in Ubuntu ? - [ ] sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager stop > This is wrong ! - [ ] touch > This is wrong ! - [x] sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager start > This is the correct answer. - [ ] cat > This is wrong ! ## Command to start DHCP Server in Ubuntu ? - [ ] sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager stop > This is wrong ! - [ ] sudo service isc-dhcp-server stop > This is wrong ! - [x] sudo service isc-dhcp-server start > This is the correct answer. - [ ] sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager start > This is wrong ! ## iperf -c is ? - [ ] iperf help > This is wrong ! - [ ] iperf server > This is wrong ! - [x] iperf client > This is the correct answer. - [ ] iperf configuration > This is wrong ! ## How to create monitor mode interface ? - [ ] sudo iw dev wlan1 add moni0 type monitor > This is wrong ! - [ ] sudo iw dev wlan1 interface del moni0 type monitor > This is wrong ! - [x] sudo iw dev wlan1 interface add moni0 type monitor > This is the correct answer. - [ ] sudo iw dev wlan1 interface add moni0 mode monitor > This is wrong ! ## Which command is used to capture protocol packets ? - [ ] cat > This is wrong ! - [ ] sudo iw dev wlan1 interface del moni0 type monitor > This is wrong ! - [x] wireshark > This is the correct answer. - [ ] grep > This is wrong ! ## What is the right sequence used for connection in Open security ? - [ ] Authentiaction, Scanning, Association, Ping, DORA > This is wrong ! - [ ] Association, Authentication, DORA, Ping > This is wrong ! - [x] Scanning, Authentication, Association, DORA, Ping > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Association, DORA, Ping, Authentication, Scanning > This is wrong ! ## cd $HOME means ? - [ ] Change directory to previous directory > This is wrong ! - [ ] Change directory to /home > This is wrong ! - [x] Change directory to /home/user > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Change directory to next directory > This is wrong ! ## "cp defconfig .config" means ? - [ ] Copy contents of file .config to file .config > This is wrong ! - [ ] Copy contents of file defconfig to file defconfig > This is wrong ! - [x] Copy contents of file defconfig to file .config > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Copy contents of file .config to file defconfig > This is wrong ! ## "sudo vim ./run_supplicant.conf" means ? - [ ] Rename file run_supplicant.conf > This is wrong ! - [ ] Delete file run_supplicant.conf > This is wrong ! - [x] Open file run_supplicant.conf for edit > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Open file run_supplicant.conf for close > This is wrong ! ## DHCP Discover packet is ? - [ ] sent from AP to AP > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from STA to AP > This is the correct answer. - [ ] sent from AP to STA > This is wrong ! ## DHCP Request packet is ? - [ ] sent from AP to AP > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from STA to AP > This is the correct answer. - [ ] sent from AP to STA > This is wrong ! ## DHCP ACK packet is ? - [ ] sent from AP to AP > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from AP to STA > This is the correct answer. - [ ] sent from STA to AP > This is wrong ! ## WPA stands for ? - [ ] Wi-Fi Personalised Access > This is wrong ! - [ ] Wi-Fi Protected AP > This is wrong ! - [x] Wi-Fi Protected Access > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Wi-Fi Protected Authentication > This is wrong ! ## TKIP stands for ? - [ ] Temporal Key Internet Protocol > This is wrong ! - [ ] Temporal Key International Protocol > This is wrong ! - [x] Temporal Key Integrity Protocol > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Temporal Key Internal Protocol > This is wrong ! ## PTK stands for ? - [ ] Pairwise Transmission Key > This is wrong ! - [ ] Personal Transient Key > This is wrong ! - [x] Pairwise Transient Key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Pairwise Transponder Key > This is wrong ! ## Which 802.11 standard has security enhancements ? - [ ] 802.11a > This is wrong ! - [ ] 802.11b > This is wrong ! - [x] 802.11i > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 802.11n > This is wrong ! ## 802.11i was introduced in which year ? - [ ] 1999 > This is wrong ! - [ ] 2006 > This is wrong ! - [x] 2004 > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 2007 > This is wrong ! ## GTK stands for ? - [ ] Group Transient Key > This is wrong ! - [ ] Global Temporal Key > This is wrong ! - [x] Group Temporal Key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Group Transponder Key > This is wrong ! ## RSNA stands for ? - [ ] Range Security Network Association > This is wrong ! - [ ] Robust Security Navigation Association > This is wrong ! - [x] Robust Security Network Association > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Robust Security Network Authentication > This is wrong ! ## KCK stands for ? - [ ] EAPOL-Key Congested Key > This is wrong ! - [ ] EAPOL-Key Configuration Key > This is wrong ! - [x] EAPOL-Key Confirmation Key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] EAPOL-Key Continuous Key > This is wrong ! ## KEK stands for ? - [ ] EAPOL-Key Enhanced Key > This is wrong ! - [ ] EAPOL-Key Entity Key > This is wrong ! - [x] EAPOL-Key Encryption Key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] EAPOL-Key Effective Key (KEK) > This is wrong ! ## EAPOL stands for ? - [ ] Extensible Access Protocol(EAP) over LAN > This is wrong ! - [ ] Extensible Authentication Protocol(EAP) over LAN > This is wrong ! - [x] Extensible Arranged Protocol(EAP) over LAN > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Extensible Advanced Protocol(EAP) over LAN > This is wrong ! ## MIC stands for ? - [ ] Message Invert Code > This is wrong ! - [ ] Message Internal Code > This is wrong ! - [x] Message Integrity Code > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Message Integrity Configuration > This is wrong ! ## How many EAPOL packets are used in WPA ? - [ ] 2 > This is wrong ! - [ ] 6 > This is wrong ! - [x] 4 > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 8 > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA, M1 is ? - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from STA to AP > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from AP to STA > This is the correct answer. - [ ] send from AP to AP > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA, M3 is ? - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from STA to AP > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from AP to STA > This is the correct answer. - [ ] send from AP to AP > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA, M2 is ? - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from AP to STA > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from STA to AP > This is the correct answer. - [ ] send from AP to AP > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA, M4 is ? - [ ] sent from STA to STA > This is wrong ! - [ ] sent from AP to STA > This is wrong ! - [x] sent from STA to AP > This is the correct answer. - [ ] send from AP to AP > This is wrong ! ## PMK stands for ? - [ ] Pairwise Main Key > This is wrong ! - [ ] Pairwise Managed Key > This is wrong ! - [x] Pairwise Master Key > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Pairwise Message Key > This is wrong ! ## PTK is used for ? - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of Beacon packets > This is wrong ! - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of Multicast data packets > This is wrong ! - [x] Encrypt/Decrypt of Unicast data packets > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of 802.11 ACK packets > This is wrong ! ## GTK is used for ? - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of Beacon packets > This is wrong ! - [x] Encrypt/Decrypt of Multicast data packets > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of Unicast data packets > This is wrong ! - [ ] Encrypt/Decrypt of 802.11 ACK packets > This is wrong ! ## Which Information Element is included in Beacon indicating support for RSN WPA ? - [ ] CSA IE > This is wrong ! - [x] RSN IE > This is the correct answer. - [ ] SSID IE > This is wrong ! - [ ] P2P IE > This is wrong ! ## Which Information Element is included in Beacon indicating support for RSN WPA ? - [ ] CSA IE > This is wrong ! - [x] RSN IE > This is the correct answer. - [ ] SSID IE > This is wrong ! - [ ] P2P IE > This is wrong ! ## What is the correct sequence of connection used in WPA ? - [ ] Authentication, Scanning, Association, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is wrong ! - [x] Scanning, Authentication, Association, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Scanning, Association, Authentication, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is wrong ! - [ ] Scanning, Association, Authentication, DORA, 4-Way handshake, Ping > This is wrong ! ## What is the correct sequence of connection used in WPA2 ? - [ ] Authentication, Scanning, Association, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is wrong ! - [x] Scanning, Authentication, Association, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is the correct answer. - [ ] Scanning, Association, Authentication, 4-Way handshake, DORA, Ping > This is wrong ! - [ ] Scanning, Association, Authentication, DORA, 4-Way handshake, Ping > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA2, how many EAPOL packets are exchanged ? - [ ] 2 > This is wrong ! - [x] 4 > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 6 > This is wrong ! - [ ] 8 > This is wrong ! ## In 802.11 WPA2, how many Authentication packets are exchanged ? - [ ] 4 > This is wrong ! - [x] 2 > This is the correct answer. - [ ] 6 > This is wrong ! - [ ] 8 > This is wrong !