Open

Open frame exchange

OPEN is a very basic security mechanism where data is not proteted by any password It is suggested that not to use OPEN security mechanism.

The following is a representation of OPEN network handshake

Hostapd(AP)                                         wpa_supplicant(station)

|<<-----------------------Auth_Req---------------------------|

|-------------------------Auth_Resp------------------------>>|

|<<-----------------------Assoc_Req--------------------------|

|-------------------------Assoc_Resp----------------------->>|

Test bed

Inorder to execute below practical example, two Linux machines are needed with ubuntu version >= 16.04.

  • Check the Ubuntu version on your machine. Ubuntu version used for in this site is 20.04
    $ lsb_release -a
    No LSB modules are available.
    Distributor ID:	Ubuntu
    Description:	Ubuntu 20.04.2 LTS
    Release:	20.04
    Codename:	focal
    

wpa_supplicant compilation

The daemon process that runs in the client stations. It implements WPA key negotiation with a WPA Authenticator and EAP authentication with Authentication Server. In addition, it controls the roaming and IEEE 802.11 authentication/association of the wireless LAN driver. Following are the steps to download and compiling wpa_supplicant from source code

  1. Download latest wpa_supplicant
    $ wget https://w1.fi/releases/wpa_supplicant-2.9.tar.gz
    
  2. Install required packages
    $ sudo apt install libnl-genl-3-dev libnl-3-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev
    
    below messages indicate that packages are installed successfully
    The following NEW packages will be installed:
      libdbus-glib-1-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin libnl-3-dev libnl-genl-3-dev
    0 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 4 not upgraded.
    Need to get 212 kB of archives.
    After this operation, 1,235 kB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
    Get:1 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin amd64 0.110-5fakssync1 [39.5 kB]
    Get:2 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libdbus-glib-1-dev amd64 0.110-5fakssync1 [69.2 kB]
    Get:3 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libnl-3-dev amd64 3.4.0-1 [92.2 kB]
    Get:4 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libnl-genl-3-dev amd64 3.4.0-1 [10.7 kB]
    Fetched 212 kB in 1s (293 kB/s)             
    Selecting previously unselected package libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin.
    (Reading database ... 385264 files and directories currently installed.)
    Preparing to unpack .../libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin_0.110-5fakssync1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libdbus-glib-1-dev_0.110-5fakssync1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64 (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libnl-3-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libnl-3-dev_3.4.0-1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libnl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libnl-genl-3-dev_3.4.0-1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Setting up libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Setting up libnl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Setting up libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64 (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Setting up libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Processing triggers for man-db (2.9.1-1) ...
    
    
  3. Extract the tar file
    $ tar -xvf wpa_supplicant-2.9.tar.gz
    
  4. Go to wpa_supplicant directory
    $ cd wpa_supplicant-2.9/wpa_supplicant
    
  5. Copy the default configuration into .conf file
    $ cp defconfig .config
    
  6. Build the wpa_supplicant
    $ make
    

    Below is the list of files compiled based on the features enabled in “.config”

      CC  config.c
      CC  notify.c
      CC  bss.c
      CC  eap_register.c
      CC  ../src/utils/common.c
      CC  ../src/utils/wpa_debug.c
      CC  ../src/utils/wpabuf.c
      CC  ../src/utils/bitfield.c
      CC  op_classes.c
      CC  rrm.c
      CC  wmm_ac.c
      CC  ../src/utils/os_unix.c
      CC  ../src/utils/eloop.c
      CC  config_file.c
      CC  ../src/rsn_supp/wpa_ft.c
      CC  ../src/common/sae.c
      CC  ../src/common/dpp.c
      CC  dpp_supplicant.c
      CC  ../src/rsn_supp/wpa.c
      CC  ../src/rsn_supp/preauth.c
      CC  ../src/rsn_supp/pmksa_cache.c
      CC  ../src/rsn_supp/wpa_ie.c
      CC  ../src/common/wpa_common.c
      CC  ibss_rsn.c
      CC  p2p_supplicant.c
      CC  p2p_supplicant_sd.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_utils.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_parse.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_build.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_go_neg.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_sd.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_pd.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_invitation.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_dev_disc.c
      CC  ../src/p2p/p2p_group.c
      CC  ../src/ap/p2p_hostapd.c
      CC  wifi_display.c
      CC  hs20_supplicant.c
      CC  interworking.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_tls.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_peap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_peap_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_ttls.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_md5.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_mschapv2.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/mschapv2.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_gtc.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_otp.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_leap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_fast.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_fast_pac.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_fast_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_pax.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_pax_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_sake.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_sake_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_gpsk.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_gpsk_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_pwd.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_pwd_common.c
      CC  wps_supplicant.c
      CC  ../src/utils/uuid.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_wsc.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_wsc_common.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_common.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_attr_parse.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_attr_build.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_attr_process.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_dev_attr.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_enrollee.c
      CC  ../src/wps/wps_registrar.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_ikev2.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/ikev2.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_ikev2_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/ikev2_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_tnc.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/tncc.c
      CC  ../src/eapol_supp/eapol_supp_sm.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_methods.c
      CC  ap.c
      CC  ../src/ap/hostapd.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth_glue.c
      CC  ../src/ap/utils.c
      CC  ../src/ap/authsrv.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_config.c
      CC  ../src/utils/ip_addr.c
      CC  ../src/ap/sta_info.c
      CC  ../src/ap/tkip_countermeasures.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_mlme.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_1x.c
      CC  ../src/eapol_auth/eapol_auth_sm.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_shared.c
      CC  ../src/ap/drv_callbacks.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_drv_ops.c
      CC  ../src/ap/beacon.c
      CC  ../src/ap/bss_load.c
      CC  ../src/ap/eap_user_db.c
      CC  ../src/ap/neighbor_db.c
      CC  ../src/ap/rrm.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_ht.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_vht.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ctrl_iface_ap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_identity.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_methods.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wmm.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_list.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11.c
      CC  ../src/ap/hw_features.c
      CC  ../src/ap/dfs.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wps_hostapd.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_wsc.c
      CC  ../src/ap/dpp_hostapd.c
      CC  ../src/ap/gas_query_ap.c
      CC  ../src/ap/gas_serv.c
      CC  ../src/ap/hs20.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth_ie.c
      CC  ../src/ap/pmksa_cache_auth.c
      CC  ../src/common/dragonfly.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/ms_funcs.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/chap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_peer/eap_tls_common.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/tls_openssl.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/tls_openssl_ocsp.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/crypto_openssl.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/aes-siv.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/aes-ctr.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/aes-omac1.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-kdf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha384-kdf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha512-kdf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-tlsprf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha384-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha512-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/dh_groups.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/random.c
      CC  ../src/common/ctrl_iface_common.c
      CC  ctrl_iface.c
      CC  ctrl_iface_unix.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_dict_helpers.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_new_helpers.c
    dbus/dbus_new.c: In function ‘wpas_dbus_unregister_p2p_group’:
    dbus/dbus_new.c:4793:3: warning: ‘%s’ directive argument is null [-Wformat-overflow=]
     4793 |   wpa_printf(MSG_DEBUG,
          |   ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
     4794 |       "%s: Group object '%s' already unregistered",
          |       ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
     4795 |       __func__, wpa_s->dbus_groupobj_path);
          |       ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      CC  dbus/dbus_new.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_new_handlers.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_common.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_new_handlers_wps.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_new_handlers_p2p.c
      CC  dbus/dbus_new_introspect.c
      CC  ../src/utils/base64.c
      CC  sme.c
      CC  ../src/common/ieee802_11_common.c
      CC  ../src/common/hw_features_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_common.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha1-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha1-tprf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha1-tlsprf.c
      CC  bgscan_simple.c
      CC  bgscan.c
      CC  ../src/common/gas_server.c
      CC  ../src/common/gas.c
      CC  gas_query.c
      CC  offchannel.c
      CC  ../src/utils/json.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_common.c
      CC  wpa_supplicant.c
      CC  events.c
      CC  blacklist.c
      CC  wpas_glue.c
      CC  scan.c
      CC  main.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_wired.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_wired_common.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_capa.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_event.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_monitor.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_scan.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/netlink.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/linux_ioctl.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/rfkill.c
      CC  ../src/utils/radiotap.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_wext.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/drivers.c
      CC  ../src/l2_packet/l2_packet_linux.c
      LD  wpa_supplicant
      CC  wpa_cli.c
      CC  ../src/common/wpa_ctrl.c
      CC  ../src/common/cli.c
      CC  ../src/utils/edit_simple.c
      LD  wpa_cli
      CC  wpa_passphrase.c
      LD  wpa_passphrase
    
  7. Install the compiled commands (optional)
    $ make install
    

hostapd compilation

The hostapd is a user space daemon for access point and authentication servers. It implements IEEE 802.11 access point management, IEEE 802.1X/WPA/WPA2/EAP Authenticators, RADIUS client, EAP server, and RADIUS authentication server. Following are the steps to download and compiling hostapd from source code

  1. Download latest hostapd
    $ wget http://w1.fi/releases/hostapd-2.9.tar.gz
    
  2. Install required packages
    $ sudo apt install libnl-genl-3-dev libnl-3-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev
    
    below messages indicate that packages are installed successfully
    The following NEW packages will be installed:
      libdbus-glib-1-dev libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin libnl-3-dev libnl-genl-3-dev
    0 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 4 not upgraded.
    Need to get 212 kB of archives.
    After this operation, 1,235 kB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
    Get:1 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin amd64 0.110-5fakssync1 [39.5 kB]
    Get:2 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libdbus-glib-1-dev amd64 0.110-5fakssync1 [69.2 kB]
    Get:3 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libnl-3-dev amd64 3.4.0-1 [92.2 kB]
    Get:4 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal/main amd64 libnl-genl-3-dev amd64 3.4.0-1 [10.7 kB]
    Fetched 212 kB in 1s (293 kB/s)             
    Selecting previously unselected package libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin.
    (Reading database ... 385264 files and directories currently installed.)
    Preparing to unpack .../libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin_0.110-5fakssync1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libdbus-glib-1-dev_0.110-5fakssync1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64 (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libnl-3-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libnl-3-dev_3.4.0-1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libnl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Selecting previously unselected package libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64.
    Preparing to unpack .../libnl-genl-3-dev_3.4.0-1_amd64.deb ...
    Unpacking libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Setting up libdbus-glib-1-dev-bin (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Setting up libnl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Setting up libdbus-glib-1-dev:amd64 (0.110-5fakssync1) ...
    Setting up libnl-genl-3-dev:amd64 (3.4.0-1) ...
    Processing triggers for man-db (2.9.1-1) ...
    
    
  3. Extract the tar file
    $ tar -xzvf hostapd-2.9.tar.gz
    
  4. Go to Hostapd directory
    $ cd hostapd-2.9/hostapd
    
  5. Copy the default configuration into .conf file
    $ cp defconfig .config
    
  6. Build the Hostapd
    $ make
    

    Below is the list of files compiled based on the features enabled in “.config”

      CC  main.c
      CC  config_file.c
      CC  ../src/ap/hostapd.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth_glue.c
      CC  ../src/ap/drv_callbacks.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_drv_ops.c
      CC  ../src/ap/utils.c
      CC  ../src/ap/authsrv.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_1x.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_config.c
      CC  ../src/ap/eap_user_db.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/sta_info.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/tkip_countermeasures.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_mlme.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wpa_auth_ie.c
      CC  ../src/ap/preauth_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/pmksa_cache_auth.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11_shared.c
      CC  ../src/ap/beacon.c
      CC  ../src/ap/bss_load.c
      CC  ../src/ap/neighbor_db.c
      CC  ../src/ap/rrm.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/drivers.c
      CC  ../src/utils/eloop.c
      CC  ../src/utils/common.c
      CC  ../src/utils/wpa_debug.c
      CC  ../src/utils/wpabuf.c
      CC  ../src/utils/os_unix.c
      CC  ../src/utils/ip_addr.c
      CC  ../src/common/ieee802_11_common.c
      CC  ../src/common/wpa_common.c
      CC  ../src/common/hw_features_common.c
      CC  ../src/eapol_auth/eapol_auth_sm.c
      CC  ../src/eapol_auth/eapol_auth_dump.c
      CC  ../src/radius/radius.c
      CC  ../src/radius/radius_client.c
      CC  ../src/radius/radius_das.c
      CC  ../src/ap/accounting.c
      CC  ../src/ap/vlan_init.c
      CC  ../src/ap/vlan_ifconfig.c
      CC  ../src/ap/vlan.c
      CC  ../src/common/ctrl_iface_common.c
      CC  ctrl_iface.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ctrl_iface_ap.c
      CC  ../src/ap/iapp.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_hostap.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_capa.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_event.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_monitor.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_nl80211_scan.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/netlink.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/linux_ioctl.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/rfkill.c
      CC  ../src/utils/radiotap.c
      CC  ../src/l2_packet/l2_packet_linux.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_md5.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_tls.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_peap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_peap_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_ttls.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_mschapv2.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_gtc.c
      CC  eap_register.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/eap_common.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_methods.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_identity.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/ms_funcs.c
      CC  ../src/eap_common/chap.c
      CC  ../src/eap_server/eap_server_tls_common.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/tls_openssl.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/tls_openssl_ocsp.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/crypto_openssl.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/aes-omac1.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha1-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha1-tlsprf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-prf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-tlsprf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/sha256-kdf.c
      CC  ../src/crypto/random.c
      CC  ../src/ap/wmm.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ap_list.c
      CC  ../src/ap/ieee802_11.c
      CC  ../src/ap/hw_features.c
      CC  ../src/ap/dfs.c
      CC  ../src/drivers/driver_common.c
      LD  hostapd
      CC  hostapd_cli.c
      CC  ../src/common/wpa_ctrl.c
      CC  ../src/common/cli.c
      CC  ../src/utils/edit_simple.c
      LD  hostapd_cli
    
    
  7. Install the compiled commands (optional)
    $ make install
    

Running hostapd

  1. Check if wifi interface with the name “wlan0” is available. This is created on boot up of the ubuntu machine or by installing wifi driver manually
    $ iwconfig 
    wlan0     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:off/any  
              Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
              Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
              Power Management:on
    
    $ iw dev 
    phy#1
    	Interface wlan0
    		ifindex 5
    		wdev 0x100000001
    		addr 02:00:00:00:00:00
    		type managed
    		txpower 20.00 dBm
    
  2. Create a hostapd.conf file in /etc/hostapd/ folder with below content
    $ sudo vim /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    
Copy below content
interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
ssid=test_open
hw_mode=g
channel=6
macaddr_acl=0
auth_algs=1
ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
  1. Go to hostapd directory
    $ cd hostapd-2.9/hostapd
    
  2. Run hostapd by issuing follwing command
    $ sudo ./hostapd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    

    Below log messages are seen on console after running hostapd

    Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
    Using interface wlan0 with hwaddr 02:00:00:00:00:00 and ssid "test_open"
    wlan0: interface state UNINITIALIZED->ENABLED
    wlan0: AP-ENABLED 
    
  3. Mode of “wlan0” interface is now assigned as “AP/Master”. Check this by querying information via iwconfig/iw command

    $ iwconfig 
    wlan0     IEEE 802.11  Mode:Master  Tx-Power=20 dBm   
              Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
              Power Management:on
    
    $ iw dev
    phy#1
    	Interface wlan0
    		ifindex 5
    		wdev 0x100000001
    		addr 02:00:00:00:00:00
    		ssid test_open
    		type AP
    		channel 6 (2437 MHz), width: 20 MHz (no HT), center1: 2437 MHz
    		txpower 20.00 dBm
    

Running wpa_supplicant

METHOD 1: With Network Block in wpa_supplicant.conf file

  1. Check if wifi interface with the name “wlan1” is available. This is created on boot up of the ubuntu machine or by installing wifi driver manually
    $ iwconfig 
    wlan1     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:off/any  
              Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
              Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
              Power Management:on
    
    $ iw dev
    phy#2
    	Interface wlan1
    		ifindex 6
    		wdev 0x200000001
    		addr 02:00:00:00:01:00
    		type managed
    		txpower 20.00 dBm
    
  2. Go to wpa_supplicant directory
    $ cd wpa_supplicant-2.9/wpa_supplicant
    
  3. Create wpa_supplicant.conf file with following network block contents
    $ vim wpa_supplicant.conf
    
delete all existing content and copy below content
ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
update_config=1

network={
	ssid="test_open"
	key_mgmt=NONE
}

  1. Run wpa_supplicant
    $ sudo ./wpa_supplicant -Dnl80211 -i wlan1 -c wpa_supplicant.conf
    

    Below log messages are seen on console after running wpa_supplicant

    Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant
    wlan1: SME: Trying to authenticate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_open' freq=2437 MHz)
    wlan1: Trying to associate with 02:00:00:00:00:00 (SSID='test_open' freq=2437 MHz)
    wlan1: Associated with 02:00:00:00:00:00
    wlan1: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 02:00:00:00:00:00 completed [id=0 id_str=]
    wlan1: CTRL-EVENT-SUBNET-STATUS-UPDATE status=0
    

    Message “CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED” indicates that wpa_supplicant(station) is connected to hostapd(ap) successfully

  2. Run wpa_cli and check status in wpa_cli prompt
    $ sudo ./wpa_cli -i wlan1
    > status
    bssid=02:00:00:00:00:00
    freq=2437
    ssid=test_open
    id=1
    mode=station
    pairwise_cipher=NONE
    group_cipher=NONE
    key_mgmt=NONE
    wpa_state=COMPLETED
    address=02:00:00:00:01:00
    uuid=e22ecb71-2706-5c5b-9521-e1cd7dbf8e11
    

    Message “wpa_state=COMPLETE” indicates that wpa_supplicant(station) is connected to hostapd(ap) successfully

  3. Mode of “wlan1” interface is now assigned as “Managed” with ssid “test_open”. Check this by querying information via iwconfig/iw command
    $ iwconfig 
    wlan1     IEEE 802.11  ESSID:"test_open"  
              Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.437 GHz  Access Point: 02:00:00:00:00:00   
              Bit Rate:54 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
              Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
              Power Management:on
              Link Quality=70/70  Signal level=-30 dBm  
              Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
              Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0
    
    $ iw dev
    phy#2
    	Interface wlan1
    		ifindex 6
    		wdev 0x200000001
    		addr 02:00:00:00:01:00
    		ssid test_open
    		type managed
    		channel 6 (2437 MHz), width: 20 MHz (no HT), center1: 2437 MHz
    		txpower 20.00 dBm
    
    

METHOD 2: Without Network Block in wpa_supplicant.conf file

  1. Go to wpa_supplicant directory
    $ cd wpa_supplicant-2.9/wpa_supplicant
    
  2. Run wpa_supplicant without network block in wpa_supplicant.conf file
    $ sudo ./wpa_supplicant -Dnl80211 -i wlan1 -c wpa_supplicant.conf
    
  3. Run wpa_cli to connect to Open network
    $ sudo ./wpa_cli -i wlan1
    > scan
    > scan_result # check network
    > add_network
    > set_network 0 ssid "test_open"
    > set_network 0 key_mgmt NONE
    > enable_network 0
    > status
    > bssid=02:00:00:00:00:00
    freq=2437
    ssid=test_open
    id=1
    mode=station
    pairwise_cipher=NONE
    group_cipher=NONE
    key_mgmt=NONE
    wpa_state=COMPLETED
    address=02:00:00:00:01:00
    uuid=e22ecb71-2706-5c5b-9521-e1cd7dbf8e11
    

Run data traffic

Steps

AP

Station

Step 1 : Assign IP address

$ ifconfig wlan0 192.168.3.1 up
$ ifconfig wlan1 192.168.3.10 up

Step 2 : Check IP address

$ ifconfig wlan0
wlan0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.3.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.3.255
        ether 02:00:00:00:00:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 61  bytes 11085 (11.0 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 130  bytes 25688 (25.6 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
$ ifconfig wlan1
wlan1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.3.10  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.3.255
        ether 02:00:00:00:01:00  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73  bytes 13119 (13.1 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 65  bytes 13111 (13.1 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Step 3 : Check ping

$ ping 192.168.3.10
PING 192.168.3.10 (192.168.3.10) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.092 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.036 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.094 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.105 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.10: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.094 ms

$ ping 192.168.3.1
PING 192.168.3.1 (192.168.3.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.121 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.091 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.090 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.097 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.3.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.243 ms

Step 4 : Run iperf TCP DL

$ iperf -c 192.168.3.10 -i 1 -t 5
$ iperf -s -i 1

Step 5 : Run iperf TCP UL

$ iperf -s -i 1
$ iperf -c 192.168.3.1 -i 1 -t 5

Step 6 : Run iperf UDP DL

$ iperf -c 192.168.3.10 -u -b 1000M -i 1 -t 5
$ iperf -s -u -i 1 

Step 7 : Run iperf UDP UL

$ iperf -s -u -i 1
$ iperf -c 192.168.3.1 -u -b 1000M -i 1 -t 5